Night sky notes for June 2019 Geoff Mitchell
The June night sky shows almost continuous twilight, the summer solstice on June 21st marks the shortest night, the start of summer in the northern and the start of winter in the southern hemisphere. The bright conditions limit observations to the planets and brighter stars.
Mercury moves back into evening twilight from early June onwards and have a close conjunction with Mars on June 18th; however both planets are placed low in the western aspect at 10pm by late June.
The bright planet Jupiter in the constellation of Ophiuchus and now rises low in the south-eastern aspect by mid evening. Jupiter reaches opposition on June 10th , culminating (due south) at 1am although at declination -22° the maximum elevation is only 16° so a good southern horizon is required.
Small telescopes show up to four prominent Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto as well as the famous cloud belts. The Great Red Spot (GRS) is less prominent and may require larger telescopes to see at favourable times – Jupiter rotates in just less than 10 hours. Under favourable conditions eclipses and occultations of the Galilean moons may be seen including shadow transit events as a small dark shadow of one of the moons is cast onto the cloud tops.- larger telescopes required.
Look low in the south east late evening to find a yellowish star to the east of Sagittarius. The yellow star is in fact the ringed planet Saturn which reaches opposition in early July. Although rather low as seen from the UK modest telescopes give a classic view of this gem of the solar system and will show the rings and the brightest moon Titan. Larger telescopes show up to six or so fainter moons and any white oval features on the planets disk and some of the ring detail such as Cassini Division etc. Observe the Seeliger Effect around opposition to mid and note any brightening of the ring system due to the ring particles angle of illumination changing causing the apparent brightening.
Scorpius [The Scorpion] the upper part of the `head and claws `marked by three stars is visible low in the south as twilight fades. Use binoculars to see the myriad of stars in these rich star clouds, best seen on clear dark moonless evenings from darker locations outside the town or remember to take your binoculars with you if you’re on your holidays. The red star Antares, as the name means `rival to Mars ` Also in the constellation is a nice globular cluster M4 just west of Antares and M80 a binocular field of view to the north west of Antares,
The summer night sky contains many fine objects to view for the enthusiast in the midnight hours but also has a few notable events of special interest this month. However during June look to the northwest some 90 to 120 minutes after sunset or to the northeast 90 minutes similarly before sunrise. This when the Sun is just below the horizon during the summer months , under favourable conditions extremely high clouds at 80 km altitude known as Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) may be seen. NLC’s show a bluish colour and also show filamentary structure.
In the south west the constellation of Virgo as twilight fades contains the white star Spica and the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies , the light sky conditions however mean that even at midnight the fainter objects are `difficult ` to view even with larger aperture telescopes.
Our own Milky Way galaxy stretches from the constellation of Auriga [The Charioteer], marked by the bright star Capella through the constellations of Perseus and Cassiopeia all now positioned low in the north. In the east however the summer constellations of Cygnus [The Swan or Northern Cross] now rises by late evening. The bright star Vega in the adjacent constellation of Lyra [The Lyre] is seen in the north east and Altair in the constellation of Aquila low in the east by late evening. Vega, Altair and Deneb, in the constellation of Cygnus form the `Summer Triangle` asterism, a useful sign post for the summer skies. Look with binoculars along the central axis of Cygnus , down through Aquila into the south and see the rich star fields of Scutum and Sagittarius , with the famous `Teapot ` asterism, low in the south in the early morning hours in June and late evening in July.
Adjacent to Lyra the familiar `keystone asterism ` of the constellation Hercules is noted for the Globular clusters M13 and M92 the former containing some 750,000 stars, a nice view in a small telescope .
The familiar asterism of the plough in the constellation of Ursa Major, The Great Bear is seen high overhead with its handle or tail pointing upwards mid evening. Use the right hand pair of stars Dubhe and Merak (The pointers) to find the faint pole star Polaris and the position of North.
High in the south west the bright orange star Arcturus in the constellation of Bootes [The Herdsman] is the brightest star in the northern hemisphere of the sky. Between Arcturus and the Keystone asterism in Hercules lies the `U` shaped constellation of Corona Borealis [Northern Crown].
Planets in June 2019
Mercury emerges in evening twilight skies in June reaching greatest elongation on June 23rd.
Venus shines brightly low the east at dawn, telescopes show a 97% phase during June
Mars sinks into evening twilight low in the west with a close conjunction with Mercury (0.2°) on June 18th.
Jupiter shines brightly (-2.6m) low in the south east by 10pm (mid month) , telescopes show cloud belt detail and Galilean moons. Jupiter reaches opposition on June 10th but remains very low in UK skies.
Saturn now at opposition (June 27th) rises by mid evening in Sagittarius low in south. Although it is low in our June skies but has the ring system open at 26 degrees – a classic view of this `gem ` of the solar system.
Uranus is not visible in pre dawn skies – best views in autumn skies.
Neptune is not visible in pre dawn skies – best seen in autumn skies
Moons phases in June 2019
New Moon June 3rd Moonless, best time for deep sky and Milky Way observing.
First Quarter June 10th Best days to see shadow details in lunar craters (early evening) **
Full Moon June 17th Best days to see bright ray craters like Copernicus / Tycho.
Last Quarter June 25th Moon visible in daytime skies. Do not look directly at the Sun.
Meteor shower s Ophiuchids – peak June 10th to June 20th – low rates unfavourable
June Bootids peak June 28th range June 22nd to July 2nd, Very favourable low rates
June Lyrids, peak June 16th – unfavourable
The highlights of the month.
Saturn low in south east by midnight , rings open at 24° DE [tilt] showing Saturn’s North Pole.
Jupiter at opposition rises late evening and culminates (due south) by 1am in early June and 11pm by late June
Blood red star Antares in the constellation of Scorpius low in the south in the late evening sky
Noctilucent cloud –watch the NW skies 90 to 120 minutes after sunset.
Rich star fields of Scutum and Sagittarius in the south and of Cygnus low in the north east late evening (moonless).
Summer solstice June 21st 16:55 BST, earliest sunrise June 17th and latest sunset of the year June 25th.
Waxing crescent Moon a 33 hour old waxing 2.4% crescent Moon on June 4th , look low close to the NW horizon from 15 minutes after sunset from around 21:30 BST until moonset at 22.:26 BST Caution. Do NOT look at the Sun directly with or without optical aid..
Note the waxing crescent Moon has a dimly lit part made visible by Earthshine is readily seen with binoculars or small telescope. Only look for the crescent Moon after the sun has completely set.
More detailed sky notes and LAS Newsletters, Finder charts are available to LAS members via the Members` page on the LAS Website www.lutonastrolink.org.uk Artificial satellite and International Space Station visible passes and bright Iridium flares – check the home page for posting s of details of favourable observing times.
Sky looking south at 11pm British Summer Time (BST), late June 2019
In the south the ringed planet Saturn lies in the constellation of Sagittarius famed for its rich star fields. Jupiter is located in the constellation Ophiuchus to the east of Antares ( a distinctive blood red coloured star) in the constellation of Scorpius.
The orange star Arcturus is found by following the curve of stars in the handle of the Plough down. The constellation of Bootes, resembles a `kite` or `Club ` in shape. The star Izar is a beautiful orange/ blue double star visible in small telescopes. To the east of Bootes find the `horseshoe` shaped constellation of Corona Borealis (Northern Crown) and the `Keystone` Asterism in the constellation of Hercules. Hercules also has M13 the famous Globular Cluster, visible to the unaided eye as a misty patch; telescopes show the true wonder of this cluster with over 750,000 stars. Likewise another nice globular is M92 in Hercules.
Sky looking east at 11pm BST late June 2019
In June the summer constellations of Lyra and Cygnus are rising by mid evening, the Milky Way may be visible on moonless evenings from a dark site, subject to twilight. Binoculars show the rich star fields of the Milky Way.
The Summer Triangle asterism formed by the three bright stars Vega, Altair and Deneb is a useful guide for finding
your way around the summer night sky
Sky looking north at 11pm BST mid June 2019
The Plough stands with its handle pointing upward follow the pointer’s Dubhe and Merek to find the polestar Polaris. The `W` shaped constellation of Cassiopeia is at its lowest point in the north late evening. The Milky Way follows the galactic equator and stretches from east through the constellations of Cygnus, Cassiopeia, Perseus and down into the northern horizon.
Sky looking west at 11pm BST late June 2019
The orange star Arcturus is found by following the curve of stars in the handle of the Plough down. The constellation of Bootes, resembles a `kite` or `Club ` in shape. Continue the `arc` through Arcturus to find the white star Spica in the constellation of Virgo.